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Swiss Essentials in Gastroenterology

The publisher and authors of. Swiss Essentials in Gastroenterology. assume no obligation to update the publication and no responsibility or warranty with respect to the timeliness, accuracy, and completeness of the information, and rejects any responsibilities relating to this matter. No liability is accepted for any damage or loss arising from the use of this information. This also applies for indirect incidental or consequential damages that have occurred as a result of the use of this publication. This book underwent critical language corrections: we thank Melissa Wilhelmi, PhD for her invaluable feedback and input. Читать>>

Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Pancreas Molecular Pathogenesis and Perspectives on Targeted Therapies

Abstract: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that are the second most common among pancreatic neoplasms. Treatment of PNETs appears to be quite difficult because diagnosis in many patients occurs only at the latest stage when distant metastases are recognized. Therefore, treatment with drugs targeting PNET oncogenesis is a promising strategy in such patients. In this work, we review the present knowledge on the molecular nature of PNETs, and the genetic basis of PNET-associated hereditary syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, von Hippel-Lindau disease, neurofibromatosis type I, and tuberous sclerosis. In addition, the results of phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of the efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib for treatment of extensive non-resectable PNETs are reviewed. Читать>>


Human gut microbiota community structures in urban and rural-populations in Russia

Abstract

The microbial community of the human gut has a crucial role in sustaining host homeostasis. High-throughput DNA sequencing has delineated the structural and functional configurations of gut metagenomes in world populations. The microbiota of the Russian population is of particular interest to researchers, because Russia encompasses a uniquely wide range of environmental conditions and ethnogeographical cohorts. Here we conduct a shotgun metagenomic analysis of gut microbiota samples from 96 healthy Russian adult subjects, which reveals novel microbial community structures. The communities from several rural regions display similarities within each region and are dominated by the bacterial taxa associated with the healthy gut. Functional analysis shows that the metabolic pathways exhibiting differential abundance in the novel types are primarily associated with the trade-off between the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. The specific signatures of the Russian gut microbiota are likely linked to the host diet, cultural habits and socioeconomic status. Читать>>


Nutritional Status in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis

Abstract: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is defined as a continuing inflammatory disease of the pancreas that is characterized by irreversible morphological changes often associated with pain and the loss of exocrine and/or endocrine function, which may be clinically relevant. Maldigestion (absolute deficiency of pancreatic enzyme secretion) is a typical complication of CP of any etiology with long anamnesis. Fat malabsorption is considered to be the malnutrition base in CP patients. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the role of nutritive status and nutritive deficiency in CP patients, evaluate diagnostic approaches, correct nutritive status deviation with reference to previous experience, and explore the present situation and possible future perspectives. Читать>>


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